Foreword

 

Introduction

 

Catalogue
Roman Deities
Female Deities
Oriental Deities
People
Italic Hercules
 
WORKSHOPS in Dacia
Doina Benea
 
Abbreviations
 
Index
 
 
Credits
Jupiter Mars Apollo Mercury Bacchus Pan Satyr Silvanus Priap Amor Hercules Lar Genius P R Genius

MERCURY

 

16. MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. V. 34765. Provenience NAPOCA (Cluj-Napoca); discovered during the archaeological excavations conducted in 1984 in 21   Decembrie Ave, end of Cuza Vodă.Street H. 6.8 cm. Good state of preservation. The left arm has been restored. Solid-cast. green patina.

Nude Mercury, with a teenager’s body, the hair in locks, and two sharp wings, big enough, upraised obliquely on the crown of the head. He stands with his weight on the right leg, the left forwards. The hands are too big. On his right hand with the outstretched palm he held the bag, and in the left the caduceus. The objects have been lost.  

R. Ardevan, Apulum XXIV 1987, 139-142 pl. I; S.Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132 no. 53 dates the piece to the 2nd century; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no.1.53 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1994, 72 no. 53.  

2nd century AD.

   

 

17. M-D.Tr Severin. Inv. II/537. Provenience ROMULA (Reşca, Olt county). H. 7.8 cm. Poor state of preservation. The arms and left leg from the knee not extant. Corroded surface; traces of slag and firing. Solid-cast. Dark grey patina.  

Nude Mercury, hair in locks with small wings in it, the head tilts slightly to the right shoulder He stands with his weight on the left leg, and the right knee is slightly bent. The body is strong the pectoral muscles marked, and so are the waist, groin and sex.  

C. Moisil, BCMI 4, 1911, 142; D. Tudor, BCMI 28, 1935, 121 no.160 Fig. 32; Gramatopol, DacAnt 182; S.Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 54; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 54 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 72 no. 54.  

Although the arms are not extant, the depiction pattern can be compared with that of a Mercury in Denon Museum [1] or in Bonn Museum [2] , while the arrangement of the wings resemble those of Mercury from Rheinzabern in Speyer Museum, and those of a Mercury from Nijmegen [3]  

2nd century AD.

 

 

18. MO-Craiova. Inv. I 7428. Provenience SUCIDAVA (Corabia, Olt county). H. 8.5 cm. The left arm broken from the elbow. Solid-cast. Dark grey patina.

Nude Mercury, with the hair in locks at the forehead and temples, and two large wings in his hair. His head is slightly turned to the right. He stands with his weight on the right leg, while the left knee is slightly bent. On the outstretched right palm he holds the bag, and in the left the caduceus (not extant).  

D.Tudor, Oltenia romană (1968) 395 Fig.105/3; C.M.Tătulea, Arta figura de pe copertă; S.Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg, 132; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 56 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1994, 72 no. 56.  

Nude Mercury with small wings in his hair, the bag in the right palm, and caduceus in the left one has many analogies. The essential differences are in the pattern of the wings. Two large wings have the statuettes :

1. Mercury from Mathay. P. Lebel, Montbéliard 17 no. 9 pl. VIII. (H. 8.7 cm).
2. Mercury from Tienen. Bruxelles. Royal Museums of Art and History. Discovered in the substructions of a Roman dwelling. Faider-Feytmans, Belgique 59-60 no. 29 pl. 14-15 considers that it has Policletian prototype. (H. 10.7 cm).
3. Mercury from Tournai. The piece was discovered under the central building of a Roman villa. André D’Hayer collection. Faider-Feytmans, Belgique 60 no. 30 pl.14-15 remarks the concentration of this type in Belgium, Rhineland and east France, thinks that it is not out of question for a workshop to have functioned at Tongeren, and accepts Boucher [4] ’ opinion that the type was created by Zenodor for the shrine discovered in Gallia at Puy de Dome. (H. 7.1 cm).
4. Mercury from Antwerpen. Vleeshuis Museum. It comes from Escaut. Faider-Feytmans, Belgique 61 no. 34 pl.17 (H. 5.7 cm).
5. Mercury from Trier. Trier Museum. Menzel, Trier 15-16 no. 29 pl.16. (H. 6.9 cm).
6. Mercury from Dennery (Saône sur Loire). Musée Denon. Boucher, Chalon, 70 no. 50 dates the piece to the 2nd century AD.
7. Mercury from Xanten.  Bonn Museum. Menzel, Bonn 13 no. 24 pl. 14. (H. 6.2 cm).
8. Mercury from Chavigny.  Evreux. Boucher Museum, Evreux 45 no. 14.
9. Mercury. Museum of History and Art in Luxembourg. Wilhelm, Luxemburg 9 no. 2 pl. 45 9 no. 3 pl. 44; 9 no. 5 pl. 45.
10. Mercury. Provenience unknown. Calvet Avignon Museum. Rolland, Haute Provence 43 no. 36.
11. Mercury from Augst, island 5 tabernae together with other bronze and ceramic statuettes dating from the second half of the 2nd century through the second half of the 3rd century AD. Augst Museum. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst 30 no. 18 pl.11 thinks that the piece comes from the same workshop wiht another piece from Augst, see infra), and with a piece from Jallerange (Lebel, Besançon no. 31 pl.19.2). (H. 10 cm).
12. Mercury from Augst. Basel Museum of History. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst, 31 no. 20 pl. 12. (H. 8 cm).
13. Mercury from Avenches. Avenches Roman Museum. Leibundgut, Avenches 21 sq no. 6, pl. 4. (H. 9.9 cm.).
14. Mercury from Orbe. Museum of Art and History in Geneva. Leibundgut, Westschweiz 27 no. 16 pl. 23 indicates analogous pieces from Loppersum, Baltimore, Vienna. (H. 12.6 cm).  

2nd century AD.

 

 

19. MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. 4222. Provenience Transylvania. H. 12.1 cm. The left leg and arm are broken; a small hat wing not extant. Solid-cast. Grey patina, with strong traces of firing.

Nude Mercury, head turned to the left, small wings in his hair. The right leg is stretched and he stands with his weight on the right leg. The right arm is bent. One can notice a rest from the bag in the in the scoop of the palm. 

C.Pop, ActaMN XVII 1980, 103 no. 2 e Fig.5; S.Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 56 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991 72 no. 56.  

2nd- 3rd centuries AD.  

 

 

 

20. MNU-Alba Iulia. Inv. R 8223. Provenience APULUM (Alba Iulia). H. 11.17 cm. A part of the right arm, a part of the right leg and the caduceus in the left hand not extant. Corroded surface. Solid-cast. Green patina.

Nude Mercury, with curly hair, round locks in the front, strands at the temples, and petasus on the head, his weight on the right leg, the left knee slightly bent, with the sole raised and turned outwards.The eyes, nostrils, and mouth are rendered by incisions. In the right hand he held the bag, and in the left the caduceus or a turtle.

 A. Cserni, Alsófeher-Vármegye Monografija (1901) 307-308; Al. Popa & I.Berciu, Apulum XV 1977, 218 no.3 Fig.3 = Colocviu Lyon 142 no. 3 Fig.3; S.Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132 ascribes a wrong typology to the piece; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 57 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991 72 no. 57 pl. II/57; Cat. Ancona 295 no. 248 (V. Moga).  

Nude Mercury or without petasus, the bag in the right hand and caduceus in the left has a series of analogies:

1. Mercury. Tekija (Transdierna). Zajecar Museum. Cat. Belgrad 1969, 89 no. 87. (H. 12 cm).
2. Mercury. Odenbach. Speyer Musuem of History. RRhein 216 C 73. The statuette dates from the end of the 1st century AD. (G. Ristow); A. Leibundgut, in: Polyklet 406 sq dates the piece to the 2nd century, and thinks that it was manufactured in Germania Superior. (H. 21.4 cm).
3. Mercury Alzey from vicus. Museum in Alzey. RRhein 216 C 74. (H. 21.4 cm).
4. Mercury. Kjose. Sofia National Archaeological Museum. Ognenova-Marinova, Cat Sofia 114 no. 128 Fig. 128. (H. 11.5 cm).
5. Mercury. Limes. Moesia Superior. Belgrade National Museum. Small wings in the hair. M.Veličković, 123 no. 16 dates the piece to the 1st – 2nd centuries , and  considers it a reflex of an original Greek from the 5th century BC (H. 8.8 cm).

The statuettes mentioned depict a classical Mercury, holding the bag by its upper part. The statuettes from Napoca and Apulum seem to depict Mercury with the bag on the palm, which would characterize the type created in Gallia [5] . On the other hand, it seems that, except for the piece from Apulum, nude Mercur y with petasus on the head and bag held downwards does not occur in Dacia any longer, as this type can be encountered in Gallia [6] .  

2nd century AD.

 

 

21. M-D.Tr Severin.Inv. II.7099. Provenience DROBETA (Drobeta-Turnu Severin). H. 7.9 cm. Right leg below the knee not extant. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Mercury rendered in a most provincial manner, with a large deep tear fossa, the nipples indicated by two circles, the hair on the forehead and the pubic one rendered by dense, parallel grooves. He wears petasus with two large wings, coming down on the crown of the head from the hat. The mantle on the left shoulder is folded around the arm, and an end hangs downwards, caduceus in the left hand and bag in the right, that hangs along  the body.  

Al. Bărcăcilă, Arhivele Olteniei XIII 1934, 91 no. 12 a Fig. 32; idem, Drubeta 31 Fig. 55 c; S. Cociş, in: Colocviu Freiburg 132; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 58 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991 72 no. 58.  

Hairdo with striations on the forehead, and thick hair at the back has a Mercury from Lyon [7] , and another from Enns [8] . A close analogy of the piece from Dacia can be found in Paris [9] .  

2nd- 3rd centuries.

 

 

22. M-D.Tr Severin. Inv. II 7118. Provenience DROBETA (Drobeta-Turnu Severin). H. 7.8 cm. Corroded surface, left arm and right foot not extant. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Mercury standing with his weight on the right leg, the left knee slightly bent, holds the bag in the right hand, the arm being slightly bent at the elbow, and stretched to the right. Also the head is turned to the right. The hair in locks, with round curls, the nipples indicated by incised circles, the pubic hair rendered by locks too, with petasus on the crown of the head, and small wings on both sides of the hat. An end of the cloak can be seen on the left shoulder.  

Al.Bărcăcilă, Arhivele Olteniei XIII 1934, 91 no. 12 b Fig. 33: Miclea & Florescu, Daco-romanii I 110 no. 334 Fig 334 (left); Gramatopol, DacAnt 182; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132; L.Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 59 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1994, 72 no. 59.  

A close analogy of the piece from Dacia can be found in Verona [10] . The pattern of the head resembles that of a Mercury in the Borely Museum in Marseilies, considered to have been inspired by a Hermes of Polycletus from mid 5th century BC, the statuette being a work of Gallic art from the 2nd century AD [11] .  At the same time, it is worth mentioning a statuette with the same position, discreet petasus, mantle with one end on the shoulder, and the other on the forearm, originating in the Thames [12] , two pieces from Italy, one from Torcello and another from Ruovo di Puglia, interpreted as Roman, but certainly deriving from a Greek prototype from the 5th century BC. [13] . It is interesting that similar depictions of Mercury, like for instance a piece from Dalheim [14] , but without petasus, which proves that the hat is not a compulsory accessory, even if the type with a hat is more frequent [15] . Mercury with mantle on the left shoulder from Neuville-en-Hez, found in the collection of the Museum of National Antiquities in Saint Germain en Laye, without petasus on the head, is considered to belong to the category of Polyclitus inspired depictions (5th century BC) manufactured in Italy during the imperial age. The mantle and petasus, as well as the sandals with small wings are added by the Roman bronzecasters, and the statuettes of Mercury and Apollo could be linked to  Polyclitus’ Discophorus, a work created between  460 and 450 [16] .  

The first half of the 2nd century AD.

 

 

23. M-D.Tr.Severin. Inv. II/212. Provenience ROMULA (Reşca, Olt county). H. 19 cm. Feet and left hand not extant. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Half-nude Mercury, with a corner of the mantle on the left shoulder, slipping along the arm, with an end hanging along the left forearm, and, by an artificial movement, down to the knees. He stands with his weight on the right leg, the left knee is slightly bent, the head turned, tilting slightly to the right.. He has locks on the temples and forehead, the long hair on the nape. The features of the face are beautiful, the mouth and nose fine, the eyebrows arched.. An ephebus’ body, with pectoral muscles, the sternum and ribs marked, and the groin too. On the head he wears a small winged petasus. In the right hand, hanging along the body, he holds the trifid bag attached to the leg.  

D.Tudor, Oltenia romană ed. 4-a (1978), 379 Fig. 107/1: RR 195 F 16 = Civiltà 206 F 39 (C. Pop); Miclea & Florescu, Daco-romanii I 113 nos. 373-374, fig.373-374 dates the statuette to the 2nd century AD and considers that it has Lisipeic origin; S. Cociş, in: Colocviu Freiburg 132; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 60 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991 no. 60; A. Bodor, ANRW, II 2, 1108 pl.III/10; Cat.Ancona 308 no. 279. (I. Stîngă).  

The statuette resembles one from Logras, Dep. Ain-France, in the Museum of  Art and History in Geneva considered to show Lisipeic influences [17] , a statuette in the Museum in Padova [18] . The pattern of the drapery, the position of the right hand resemble those of Mercury from Herculanum, dated to the firs half of the 1st century AD. [19] . The main difference consists in the fact that Mercury from Romula has its hat slightly tilting to the nape. The analogies of the statuette from Romula include a statuette from Bonn [20] , a piece in the collection of the Institute of Archaeology in Heidelberg [21] , dated to the second half of the 1st century AD. – beginning of the 2nd century, a piece with unknown provenience in the Museum in Carpentras [22] or one fished  in Sava near Macvanska Mitrovica [23] .

The trifid bag held in the right hand, close to the body, and the fan-like cloak, caught up over the left shoulder with a round fibula, resemble those of a Mercury in the Calvet Museum - Avignon [24] . His gaze resembles that of a Mercury from Trier, a depiction type in which H. Menzel sees a Lisipeic influence [25] . The drapery folds like that of a statuette from Civrieux, considered to be a Polyclitus’ pattern [26] .  

End of the 1st century beginning of the 2nd century.

 

 

24. MO-Craiova. Inv. I 7427. Provenience ROMULA (Reşca, Olt county). H. 10 cm. Object in the left hand, right hand and a part of the forearm not extant. Corroded surface. Solid-cast. Dark greenish patina.

Half-nude Mercury, with triangular petasus on the head. He stands with his weight on the left leg. A corner of the mantle can be noticed on the left shoulder, the cloak is folded on the arm and hangs downwards. He wears low boots. In the right hand, hanging along the body, he held the bag, and in the left he must have held the caduceus.  

D.Tudor, Oltenia romană ed. a 3-a (1968) Fig. 105/4; Tătulea, Arta 7; idem, Romula 113 Fig. 32/3; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 8; L. Marinescu, in Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 61 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV, 1988-1991, 72 no. 61.  

The first half of the 2nd century AD.

 

 

25. MR-Caracal. Inv. 2941. Provenience ROMULA (Reşca, Olt county). H. 7.6 cm. The statuette is in a poor state of preservation, legs below the knees and left forearm not extant. The statuette, solid-cast, is covered by slag. Dark grey patina?

Mercury wears petasus on the head and mantle on the left shoulder, that covers the back and folds on the left forearm. In the right hand he holds the bag, and in the left he must have held the caduceus.

 

C.C.Petolescu & St.Chiţu, RMM 3, 1974, 62 no. 11 Fig. 21; S. Cociş, in: Colocviu Freiburg 132 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 9; L. Marinescu, in Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 63 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 72 no. 63.  

The hat resembles that of a Mercury from the bronzes deposit from Bavai, dated to the 1st century AD. [27] .  

2nd century AD.

 

 

26. MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. V. 1124. Provenience POTAISSA (Turda, Cluj county). H. 8.5 cm. Object in the left hand not extant. Solid-cast. Green patina.

Mercury with a wide-brimmed hat on his head stands with his weight on the right leg and the left knee is slightly bent and drawn backwards. He leans to the left. In the outstretched right hand he holds the trifid bag. From the left shoulder to the chest runs a corner of the mantle, that is folded on the arm, its end being attached to the body. In the left hand he must have held the caduceus.  

Civiltà 206 F 40 (R. Florescu); Miclea & Florescu, Daco-romanii, I 84 no. 154 Fig.154; Rep.Cluj 404 no. 62 (M.Bărbulescu); Bărbulescu, Potaissa pl. XV Fig. 2; S. Cociş, in: Colocviu Freiburg 133 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 20 (wrong inv. no.); L. Marinescu, in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 64 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV, 1988-1991, 72 no. 64 (wrong inv. no.); Cat.Cluj 9, 25 no. 19 (C. Pop).  

The piece has analogies in Belgium at Gent. Stedelijk Bijolke Museum [28] , for the way he holds the bag [29] , while the hat resembles that of a Mercury in the Museum in Strasbourg, dated to the mid 2nd century AD [30] , and another from Munderkingen, that has also the same position [31] .  

2nd century AD.

 

 

27. Once in the MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. 23623 Provenience ULPIA TRAIANA SARMIZEGETUSA (Sarmizegetusa, Hunedoara county) in the NE corner of the E wall in the temple dedicated to Malagbel and other gods. H. 9.3 cm. Object in left hand not extant. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Mercury, with the pectoral muscles well rendered, slightly leaning to the front, stands with his weight on the left leg, the right knee slightly bent, the head tilting to the right. He has hair in locks and petasus, with wide wings on the head. Two X-shaped deep incisions can be seen on the hair at the back and a vertical one indicates the backbone. In the right hand he holds the bag by the upper part. An end of the cloak can be seen on the left shoulder, hanging along the arm, and folding around the left wrist.  

D.Alicu & C.Pop, ActaMN XVI 1979, 93-95 Figs. 1-4; Alicu & Pop & Wollmann, Mon Sarmizegetusa 185 addenda no.5 considers the piece "a creation of the artistic workshop in Ulpia Traiana"; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 133 Fig. 2 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 16 Fig. 2; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 65 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 72 no. 65.  

End of the 2nd century – first decades of the 3rd century.

 

 

28. M-D.Tr Severin. Inv. II 7090. Provenience Botoşeşti-Paia, Dolj county. H. 9 cm. The statuette has been preserved fragmentarily. The right forearm, object in the left hand and legs below the knees not extant. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

The statuette, of good quality, depicts Mercury with hair in locks, small wings in the hair and a crown (not petasus) on the head. He stands with his weight on the right leg, while the head tilts slightly to the right. The right arm hangs along the body. A corner of the mantle can be seen on the left shoulder, hanging along the arm and folding on the forearm.  

Al.Bărcăcilă, BCMI XXX 1937, 93, 132 no. 2 Fig. 2; D.Tudor, Oltenia romană ed. a 3-a (1968), 229; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132 = AIIAC XXIX, 1989, 350 no. 13 give as provenience of the piece Drobeta; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 67 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 73 no. 67.  

An analogy in Walters Gallery in Baltimore allows the presupposition that the small wings were fastened on a ribbon [32] .  

The first half of the 2nd century AD.

 

 

29. M-Lugoj. Inv. 498. Provenience Banat. H. 8.3 cm. Good state of preservation. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Mercur with petasus on the head stands with his weight on the right leg. The left is slightly withdrawn. In the right hand, hanging along the body, he holds the bag, and in the left the caduceus. The cloak is folded on the left arm and falls on both sides of the arm.  

D. Isac in: In memoriam C.Daicoviciu (1974) 189 no. 2 Fig. 2 indicates a series of analogies that stand only because they depict Mercury, without being similar as an iconographic type or as style and considers the piece to be manufactured in Dacia; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 133 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 21; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 69 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 73 no. 69.  

2nd- 3rd centuries AD.

 

 

30. MMN-Bucharesti. Inv. 230. Provenience SUCIDAVA (Corabia, Olt county). The piece comes from the Georgescu-Corabia collection. H. 6.4 cm. Right forearm and right leg below the knee not extant. Solid-cast. Brown patina.

Mercury, with a corner of the drapery on the left shoulder, petasus on the head, holds a high caduceus in the left hand. A typically provincial lack of proportion in the rendering of the limbs and body.  

C.Vlădescu & C.Pop, ActaMN XIX 1982, 304-305 fig. 14; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 126 is wrong to consider that the piece comes from Romula.  

3rd century AD.

 

 

31. Once in MB-Timişoara. Inv. 2571. Provenience TIBISCUM (Jupa, Caraş-Severin county). H. 11.5 cm. State of preservation: good. Object in the left hand not extant. Solid-cast. Dark greenish patina.

Mercury with the drapery folded on the left arm, then hanging down close to the heels, leans slightly towards the back. He stands with his weight on the left leg, the right knee slightly bent and drawn backwards. The head is turned to the left. He wears winged petasus, clearly visible on the sides. In the right hand he holds the bag.  

S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 133 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 15; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 72 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 73 no. 72.  

2nd- 3rd centuries AD.

 

MERCURY - HERMES THOT  

 

32. M-D.Tr.Severin. Inv. 7089. Provenience DROBETA (Drobeta-Turnu Severin) in the Roman camp. H. 7.5 cm. Right hand, right foot and left leg below the knee not extant. Solid-cast. Green patina.

Mercury with curly hair, arranged in two rows of locks, wears petasus, and a lotus leaf on the crown of the head. He stands with his weight on the right leg, the left is slightly withdrawn. In the outstretched right hand he must have held the bag, in the left the caduceus. One can see a corner of the cloak on the shoulder folding on th eleft arm.  

Miclea & Florescu, Daco-romanii I, 110 no. 334 Fig. 334 (right); S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 132 does not include the piece in the Mercury-Hermes Thot category = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 350 no. 12; L. Marinescu, in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 70 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1989-1991, 73 no. 70 pl. II/70.  

The piece has a series of analogies, including:

1. Mercury Thot from Köln. N.Franken, KJb 27, 1994, 436-437 no. 42 Figs.86-87 (H. 8.1 cm).
2. Mercury Thot from Pompei. Fabius Rufus House. Cicirelli, Cat. Roma (1993) 166 no. 10 Fig. 10 dates the piece to the the age of Julius-Claudius (H. 12.5 cm).
3. Mercury Thot from Palermo. Di Stefano, Palermo 20 no. 29 pl.VII considers the piece to be of Praxitelean inspiration. (H. 8.7 cm).
4. Mercury from Frankfurt. Bol, Weber, Liebighaus 146-147 no. 67 dates the piece to the 1st century and thinks that it has a late Hellenistic or Alexandria prototype. (H. 7 cm).
5. Mercury from Vienna. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Cat.Wien 101 sq no. 134 Fig. 200 dates the piece to the early imperial age, and thinks that it has a late Hellenistic prototype (H. 13 cm).
6. Mercury Thot from Sofia. Kalcev in: Colocviu Viena 408 no. 9, Fig. 9 does not notice the lotus flower on the crown of the head. Similar are also other statuettes in the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia. Vezi Ognenova-Marinova, Cat. Sofia 110-114 no. 119-121; 123-126.
7. Mercury Thot from Belgrade. Veličković, Belgrad 125-128 nos. 23-25.
8. Mercury Thot from Novi Beograd. Tadin, Pannonie 79 no. 57 pl. XXVI dates the piece to the 1st century or to Hadrianus’ age at the latest.  

The first half of the 2nd century AD.

 

MERCURY - HERMES THOT

 

33. MS-Orlea. Inv. 101/1 iunie 1970. Provenience SUCIDAVA (Corabia, Olt county). H. 8.5 cm. State of preservation: good. Solid-cast. Dark greenish patina.

Mercury, the head turned to the right, has curly hair on the forehead and temples. He wears petasus and on the crown of the head the lotus leaf. He stands with his weight on the right leg, the left is distanced a lot. Near the right leg there is a small ram. In the right hand, stretched laterally, he holds the bag, and in the left the caduceus. The cloak is folded on the left arm, then falling billowing out to the ankles.  

C.C.Petolescu & Al.Popa, Apulum XII 1974, 615 Fig. 1; S. Cociş, in: Colocviu Freiburg 129-130, 133 Fig. 3 = AIIAC XXIX 1989, 348, 350 Fig. 3; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 273, 278 no. 71 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 65, 73 no. 71.  

Mercury-Thot from Sucidava has close analogies, such as:

1. Mercury from Palermo. C.Di Stefano, Palermo 20 no. 30 pl. VIII. (H. 7.9 cm).
2. Mercury from Paris. Babelon & Blanchet, Bibl.Nat 156-157 no. 356. (H. 9 cm).
3. Mercury from Torcello. The piece comes from the antiquities trade in Constantinople. Tombolani, Torcello 86 no. 58 dates the piece to the 2nd – 3rd centuries AD. (H. 4.8 cm).
4. Mercury from Maroc. Boube-Piccot, Maroc I 202-202 no. 217 m pl. 114/1. (H. 10.5 cm).
5. Mercury from Verona. Franzoni, Verona 51 no. 32 (H. 7.4 cm).
6. Mercury from Trento. Walde-Psenner, Trentino 51 no. 22 dates the piece to the end of the 2nd century and the beginning of the 3rd century AD (H. 5.7 cm).
7. Mercury from Milan. Bolla, Milano 41-42 no. 9 pl. IV (H. 8.2 cm).  

The second half of the 2nd century AD.

 

MERCURY 

 

34. MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. V. 31010. Provenience Gherla, Cluj county, in the camp, pretentura sinistra. H. 7.3 cm. Left hand not extant. Solid-cast. Brown patina.

Mercury, depicted in a most provincial manner, stands with his weight on the right leg, the left being slightly drawn backwards, with the knee bent. The mantle, caught up over the shoulder by a round fibula, covers a part of the back and is folded around the neck and the left forearm, hanging down. In the right hand he holds a bag with two lateral swellings, and in the left he must have held the caduceus. The hair is gathered up on the crown of the head, with small wings on both sides. At the neck he has a silver torques.  

R. Ardevan, ActaMN XX 1983, 397-404; D. Alicu in: Colocviu Freiburg 21; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 130-132 Fig. 6 = AIIAC XXIX 1989 348-350 no. 24 Fig.1 mistakes the piece for Mercury from Napoca; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 273, 278 no. 68 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 65-66, 73 no. 68 pl.III/68; Miles romanus 39, 80 no. 240 (R. Ardevan).  

The statuette is stylistically analogous  to one discovered in Moesia Superior, kept in the National Museum in Belgrade [33] . There are bronze statuettes with silver or gold torques by the neck [34] . The type of Mercury with mantle around the neck has specimens that by certain stylistic details can be considered to be local, as for instance a Mercury from Augst [35] or a piece from Munderkingen dated to the second half of the 2nd century – first half of the 3rd century, considered to be from a Raetian workshop [36] .  

2nd century AD.

 

 

35. MNIR-Bucureşti. Inv. 177397. Provenience SARMIZEGETUSA REGIA (Grădiştea Muncelului, Hunedoara county). H. 7.4 cm. Corroded surface, left hand broken. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Mercury with petasus on the head, standing with his weight on the right leg, the left slightly drawn backwards, wears a mantle covering the left part of the body down to the low boots. In the right hand he holds a large bag, and in the left he must have held the caduceus.  

S.Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 133; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 66; V. Ferencz, Apulum XXXII 1995, 145-148; Cat. Ancona 288 no. 237 (L. Marinescu).  

The type of Mercury with mantle covering the left part of the body, petasus on the head, bag in the right and caduceus in the left, is very spread. The analogies of the piece from Sarmizegetusa include pieces of various sizes:

1. Mercury from Augst. Augst Museum. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst 37 no. 32 pl. 23-25 dates the piece to the 1st century AD. (H. 22 cm).
2. Mercury from Wallenburg, discovered in a pit together with other statuettes. The Basel Liestal Cantonal Museum. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst 34 no. 27 pl. 17 -18 dates the piece to the second half of the 2nd century AD. (H. 18 cm).
3. Mercury from Augst. Augst Museum. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst 34 sq no. 28 pl. 19. (H. 10.5 cm).
4. Mercury from Lyon. Lyon Museum. Boucher & S.Tasinari, Lyon 59 no. 46. (H. 13.7 cm).
5. Mercury from Wels. Wels Museum. R. Fleischer, Österreich 61-62 no. 58 pl. 34 (H. 8.8 cm).
6. Mercury from Prilep (Macedonia). Belgrade National Museum. Veličković, Belgrad 124-125 no. 18 dates the piece to the 1st 2nd centuries AD, and considers it an adaptation of Polyclitus’ Doryphoros (H. 9.1 cm).
7. Mercury of unknown provenience. Palermo Museum. C. Di Stefano, Palermo 16 no. 21 pl. VI. (H. 7.4 cm).
8. Mercury from Tomis. Museum of Archaeology in Constanţa. M. Irimia, Bronzuri figurate în Muzeul Regional de Arheologie Dobrogea (1966) 16-17 no. 7 (H. 9.7 cm).
9. Mercury from Trieste. Museum in Trieste. Cassola Guida, Trieste 76 no. 60 =  LIMC VI 2, 508, 39. The piece is dated to the 1st 2nd centuries AD (H. 9.8 cm).
10. Mercury of unknown provenience. Speyer Museum. Menzel, Speyer 8 no. 13, pl. 11 accepts M. Bieber’s opinion, Die antiken Skulpturen und Bronzen in Cassel (1915) 62 no. 155 pl. 42 that we deal with copies of a Polyclitus statue. (H. 8 cm).
11. Mercury of unknown provenience. Lecce Provincial Museum. Delli Ponti, Lecce 8-9 no. 10 pl. 5 remarks that the piece from the Roman period derives from a  Polyclitus type. (H. 6.5 cm).
12. Mercury from Verona. Museum in Verona. Franzoni, Verona 59, no. 39 remarks the an attitude similar to that of depictions of Zeus, and publishes one more series of short statuettes of this type: 60 no. 40; 61 no. 41, 62, no. 42, 63, nos. 43 and 44. (H. 9.8 cm).
13. Mercury from Lyon. Museum in Lyon. Boucher, Lyon 79 nos. 127 128. In the same place other statuettes of the same type 77 no. 123 and 124 reminding the fact that figurines comparable as sizes and details can be found in museums in France and Italy.
14. Mercury from Bavai. Faider-Feytmans, Bavai 49 no. 33 pl. VII. (H. 7.5 cm).
15. Mercury from Kassel. Museum in Kassel. Höckmann, Kassel 33 no. 69 pl. 21 dates the piece to the 1st century AD, and remarks that the type is inspired by Polyclitus’ Doryphoros or as expression and pose by Polyclitus works, differing in the position of arms, head and objects only. (H. 12 cm).
16. Mercury from Orange. Calvet Museum. Avignon. Rolland, Haute Provence 45 no. 39. (H. 14 cm).
17. Mercury from Pollentia the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid. Cat. Madrid 232 no. 129.  

End of the 1st century  - beginning of the 2nd century.

 

 

36. MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. V. 1082. Provenience Câmpia Transilvaniei, unspecified location. H. 12 cm. Good state of preservation, object in the left hand not extant. Solid-cast. Greenish patina.

Mercury, with a child’s features, turning his head to the right. He stands with his weight on the right leg, and the left knee slightly bent. The big eyes were inlaid with vitreous paste, the nose is straight and fine, the mouth beautifully outlined, half-open. The hair parted in the middle is in snail-shaped locks. He wears winged petasus. The mantle caught up over the shoulder with a round fibula folds over the shoulder and left forearm, and billows out in a zig-zag on the right part of the body , and over the left wrist. He wears winged low boots. In the right hand, in a downward position, he holds the bifid bag.  

C. Pop, ActaMN XVII 103 no. 2 d Fig. 4 considers that it is imported for sure; S. Cociş in: Colocviu Freiburg 133 and Fig 7 from 132; L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 278 no. 73 = Sargetia XXI-XXIV 1988-1991 no. 73.  

From the folds of the cloak it is clear that the god wears a mantle, not paenula. The analogies of the piece include:

1. Mercury from Kaiseraugst. Augst Museum. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Neufunde, 17-18 no. 14 pl. 16 -19 dates the piece to the end of the 1st century-beginning of the 2nd century, and thinks that it was manufactured in a workshop in Gallia. (H. 19.3 cm).
2. Mercury of unknown provenience. BHM Berna. Leibundgut, Westschweiz 32 no. 24 pl. 30 thinks that the piece comes from a local workshop. (H. 7 cm).
3. Mercury from Carnuntum. Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien. Cat.Wien 101 no. 132 Fig. 198 shows that the type is very frequent in Gallia and Germania, and the piece is dated mittlere Kaiserzeit (H. 5 cm).
4. Mercury from Teinmaern. BLM Karlsruhe. Nuber, Baden-Württenberg 98 Fig. 28 dates the piece to the 2nd century. (H. 20 cm).
5. Mercury from Clermont-Ferrand. Bargoin Museum. Boucher, Clermont-Ferrand, no. 31. (H. 18.2 cm).
6. Mercury from Chalon-sur-Saône. Paris. Bibl.Nat. Babelon & Blanchet, Bibl.Nat 151 no. 340. (H. 13.2 cm).
7. Mercury from Trieste. Muzeul Trieste. Cassola Guida, Trieste 71 no. 56. The piece is dated to the beginning of the imperial age. (H. 9.2 cm).
8. Mercury from Marseilles. Borely Museum. Oggiano-Bitar, Bouches du Rhône 98 no. 193 (H. 12 cm).

The same type, but without petasus, with a bag like that of Mercury from Transylvania, is one from Rouen [37] . The statuette from Dacia must have been manufactured in a workshop in Gallia.  

End of the 1st century-beginning of the 2nd century.

 

MERCURY - HERMES THOT  

 

37. MNITr-Cluj-Napoca. Inv. V. 1088. Provenience Transylvania? The piece was donated to the Cluj museum by Teleki Domokos who had an interesting collection of antiquities in his mansion at Gorneşti. H. 6.8 cm. A part of the forearm and the right hand, left foot, tip of right foot and lower part of the caduceus not extant. Solid-cast. Dark green patina.

Mercury, with a lotus flower on the crown of his head, wears a cloak covering the body. The god has strong features, prominent nose, fleshy lower lip,  prominent chin, deep eyes. He wears wide-brimmed petasus and two lateral small wings, framing the high lotus leaf on the crown of the head. His head is slightly turned to the right. He wears the drapery caught up over the right shoulder with a round fibula. The cloak has triangular folds on the chest, displaying the strong neck, more oblique folds in the front, in zig-zag on the right side and vertical ones at the rear. In the right hand, out of the body, he must have held the bag, and in the left a caduceus with th elower part thick and contorted.  

C. Pop, Marisia X 1980, 700 no. 2 interprets the statuette as depicting Fortuna and even cites analogies to prove it. Th erroneous interpretation was taken over also by L. Marinescu in: Colocviu Freiburg 280 no. 136 = Sargetia, XXI-XXIV 1988-1991, 77 no. 136.  

The form of the caduceus has a series of analogies in the National Museum in Palermo [38] . In Gallia there are statuettes of Mercury Toth with the mantle en sautoir [39] .  

2nd – 3rd centuries.

 

MERCURY PANTHEUS

 

38. MJ-Bistriţa. Inv. 18239. Ilişua, Bistriţa county. H. 9 cm. State of preservation: good. Only the right hand not extant. Solid-cast. Brown-golden patina.

Mercury with a teenager’s face, big eyes, incised eye ball, long straight nose, small mouth with arched lips, sharp chin. The hair is parted in the middle, tow large curls on the forehead, and two rows of locks, rendered by striations behind the ears and at the back, where he has long hair. He wears petasus with large wings. He stands with his weight on the right leg, the left slightly bent projecting the knee and drawn backwards. He touches the ground with the left foot. His feet are winged. He wears the mantle caught up over the right shoulder with a round fibula, running across the chest and folding on the left arm, then falling along the body in artificial folds, incised after casting, with two weights at the lap. In the outstretched right hand he must have held the bag, in the left the horn of abundence full of clusters of grapes, and in the upper part with three pomegranates, combined with a caduceus.  

Miles romanus 39, 80-81 no. 241 pl. XI (C. Gaiu).

It is the first depiction of Mercury Pantheus in Dacia. Analogous pieces have been discovered until now only in Gallia (7 specimens). H. Oggiano-Bitar [40] finds that this type seemingly did not exist in Italy, that in Gallia the caduceus turns into a horn of abundence, and that in Gallia, between the wings on that hat of Mercury the moon’s horn is depicted, object which Mercury from Ilişua does not seem to have had. From our point of view, it is not a transformation of the caduceus into the horn of abundence, but an association of the two elements. The portrait of Mercury from Ilişua could be linked to the imperial portraits of teenagers from Antoninus’ dynasty [41] . The deities depicted in bronze with physiognomies inspired by the imperial portraiture are rare, but do not lack [42] .  

Taking as a criterion the drapery, A.Kaufmann-Heinimann finds in Augst 5 types of Mercury depicted in bronze [43] , E. Simon establishes a typology of all the depictions of Mercury [44] , and G. Bauchhenss [45] takes over A.Kaufmann-Heinimann’s typology, enriching it with nuances.

For Dacia S.Cociş şi L.Marinescu [46] proferred typologies of bronze statuettes depicting Mercury, similar typologies, assigning to the statuettes of Mercury from Dacia three main types. A more thorough analysis of the pieces and their analogies justifies a more specific typology of the statuettes from Dacia, or, more correctly, an adaptation to the realities north of the Danube of that proffered by Kaufmann-Heinimann for the pieces from Augst.

The statuettes of Mercury from Dacia include the following types:

I. Nude Mercury, with wings in the hair or winged petasus on the head, the bag in the right hand, the caduceus in the left (nos.16-20);
Variant A: nude Mercury, wings in the hair, bag in the right hand, caduceus in the left;
Variant B: nude Mercury, winged petasus on the head, bag in the right hand, caduceus in the left;

II. Half-nude Mercury with petasus, winged or with the lotus leaf on the crown of the head, an end of the cloak on the left shoulder, the rest of the cloak folded around the left arm, the bag in the right hand, the caduceus in the left (nos. 21-33);
Variant A: half-nude Mercury, winged petasus, an end of the cloak on the left shoulder, the rest of the cloak folded around the left arm, the bag in the right hand, the caduceus in the left.
Variant B: half-nude Mercury-Hermes Toth, with petasus, winged or with the lotus leaf on the crown of the head, an end of the cloak on the left shoulder, the rest of the cloak folded around the left arm, the bag in the right hand, the caduceus in the left.

III. Half-nude Mercury, winged petasus, the mantle around the neck, and hanging on the back, caught up over the right shoulder with a round fibula, the bag in the right hand, the caduceus in the left (nos. 34; 38);
Variant A: the mantle around the neck covers the back down almost to the waist, folds on the left arm, caught up over the right shoulder with a round fibula, the bag in the right, the caduceus in the left, torques by the neck (no. 34).
Variant B: Mercury Pantheus with mantle around the neck, folded on the left arm, winged petasus on the head, bag in the right, caduceus combined with the horn of abundence in the left (no. 38).

IV. Mercury with winged petasus on the head, mantle covering the left part of the body, low boots upon his feet, bag in the right, caduceus in the left (no. 35).

V. Mercury with winged petasus on th ehad or lotus flower on the crown of the head, the mantle covering the body, low boots, the bag in the right, the caduceus in the left (nos.  36-37).

It is worth mentioning that Mercury holds the bag by the neck or that he holds it on the palm and that until now the type of sitting Mercury has not been attested in Dacia [47] .  

Statues of the god representing prototypes of the Roman statuettesare not known. Most specialists in the field of Roman bronzes have recognized in the iconographic types of Mercury the influence of works of Polyclitus [48] or Lyssip [49] . H. Menzel [50] thinks that many statuettes of Mercury are owed to  Polyclitus, his school or his successors, but that they stray from the prototype and often the body outlines and position of the arms are in common with the prototypes, and that the depictions of Mercury with a corner of the mantle on the shoulder flolded on the arm there is a Lisipeic influence. A. Leibundgut [51] finds that of Polyclitus’ works the one that influenced most the iconography of Mercury is the Diskophoros, but that one can notice also the influence of the dar că se observă şi influenţa lui Doryphoros in the position of the body and arms, as well as that of Herakles in the hairdo. She remarks in various statuettes Polyclitean elements and dates them according to their transformation. Starting from a statuette of Mercury, discovered at Pompeii, in the lararium in the Casa delle Pareti rosse, depicting the god with the body and left arm covered by the mantle caught up over the right shoulder, displaying the right part of the body, she reaches the conclusion that this type can be found as late as the beginning of the imperial age, and spreads during the 2nd century AD. [52] . S. Boucher [53] finds that Mercury with mantle on the left shoulder and winged petasus is widely spread in Italy, and that the low percentage of lead in the composition, as well as the absence of zinc justify an early date for those statuettes. At the same time, she finds that nude Mercury, with wings in the hair is unknown in Italy, but occurs in Gallia, and in the variant with the bag on the palm, not holding the neck of the bag. That would be Gallic Mercury (Mercure gaulois) created in a local workshop, situated on the Lyon-Nantes line.

The prototype of Roman statuettes depicting Mercury-Thot is, according to G.Siebert [54] a work of a Cycladic sculptor from the second half of the 1st century BC, inspired by an original of Praxitelean tradition from mid 4th century BC, and according to A.Furtwängler [55] the prototype has a purely Alexandria origin. The oldest of the statuettes of Mercury Thot come from lararia discovered in Campania, in the pars rustica of a villa from Boscoreale, in the house of A. Trebius Valens at Pompeii and in the house of Iucundus and Quartilla at Pompeii [56] , as well as from Athena, from the agora, a statuette dated "early Roman" [57] , and the newest bronze depictions date from the 2nd – 3rd centuries AD.

L. Franzoni [58] talks about the significance of the depictions of Alexandria Hermanubis, with a cloak covering the back, with palm branch in the right and caduceus in the left, having the significance of psychopompos. H. Kyrieleis [59] remarks that Hermes got a special importance during the Ptolemaic age, by the end of the 3rd century BC, becoming one of the most popular gods in the Graeco-Egyptian pantheon, having a higher cosmological relevance, and protector of kings (Königsgott). Along the same line of thought, St. Lehmann [60] argues that many of the Hellenistic sovereigns, especially Ptolemaios III permitted their being depicted with Hermes wings in the hair and the lotus leaf on the crown of the head. On the other hand, the lotus leaf can be found in the depictions of Mercury-Thot from Gallia, considered by A. Leibundgut [61] to be local products, not import ones, that could stand proof to the worship of some Egyptian deities.

Therefore, we think that we deal with an Alexandria prototype transformed in workshops in Italy or Gallia, where the pieces discovered in Dacia must have been manufactured.

Ancient sources speak about statues of Hermes. Pausanias (1,15,1; 2,9,8; 3,11,11; 7,22,2; 9,17,2) speaks about Hermes agoraios, statues of the god standing in the agora. It is possible that, as L.Franzoni [62] thinks, some of them might have provided the model for the products of small works, but there is no proof. Not is it known how the colossal statue made by Zenodor for the shrine of the Arverns, by the year 50 AD, mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Historia naturalis XXXIV,44) [63] .

As regards the origin of the type with mantle around the neck (en sautoir), P.C.Bol & Th. Weber [64] think that one of the oldest specimens belonging to this type could be the one in the load on the wreck at Mahdia in 120 BC. [65] .

The various types and variants of the depictions of Mercury in bronze are eclectic works, manufactured first in the workshops in Campania, and later most of them in Gallia, where, in some workshops, certain types were produced. Thus, nude Mercury, with wings in the hair, might come from north and east Gallia, the one with cloak covering the left part of the body in south Gallia, and the one with the body covered by cloak in south and west Gallia [66] .

Most statuettes of Mercury from Dacia are pieces imported from Gallia, only a few could be assigned to itinerant bronzecasters. They have nothing specific. The only statuette failing to observe the canon is that of Mercury-Thot with the body covered by drapery (no. 37).

[1] Boucher, Chalon 70 no.50.

[2] Menzel, Bonn 10 no.18 pl.10-11.

[3] Menzel, Speyer, 7, no.10, pl. 10 Zadoks & Peters & van Es, Netherland II 118, no.51.

[4] Latomus 30, 71. See alsoi A. Leibundgut, JdI 99, 1984, 257-289.

[5] St.Boucher, Apulum XV 1977, 276-277.

[6] Lebel, Lons le Saunier 12 no.2 pl.II.

[7] Boucher, Lyon 84 no. 135. The striations on the cloak and hairdo rendered by grooves also a Mercury from Augst has. See: Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst 36 nr. 31 pl. 21-22.

[8] Fleischer, Österreich 61 no. 57 pl. 33.

[9] Babelon & Blanchet, Bibl Nat. 145 no. 324.

[10] Franzoni, Verona 69 no. 49.

[11] Oggiano-Bitar, Bouches du Rhone 94 nr. 182.

[12] Pitts, Catuvellauni 53 no.22 pl. 10.

[13] Vezi: Tombolani Torcello 85 nr.57 şi Dalli Ponti, Lecce 9-10 no.12 pl. 6.

[14] Menzel, Bonn 15-16 no. 29 pl.16. Similar is a piece from Pingum at Zadoks & Peters & van Es, Netherland I, 66-67 no. 27.

[15] See: M.Bieber, Kassel 63 nos. 163-165 pl.XLII, remarking that the hat, mantle on the left shoulder and bag hanging is a pattern of objects and accessories frequent in depictions of Hermes from the 4th century BC.

[16] R. Lantier,in: Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire offerts à Charles Picard à l’occasion de son 65 anniversaire II (1949), RA 6 sèrie 31-32, 1948, 554-560.

[17] Menzel în: Symposium 231 Fig. 30.

[18] Zampieri, Padova 242-243 no. 144 = LIMC VI 1, 507, 37*; VI 2, 276, 37.

[19] Budetta & Pagano, Cat. Roma 1988, 38-39 no. 10.

[20] Menzel, Bonn 11 no. 19 pl. 11.

[21] Borell, Heidelberg 94 m 100 pl. 40.

[22] Rolland, Haute Provence 46 no. 41.

[23] Tadin, Pannonie 67 no. 24 pl. XIV Fig. 23 a-b.

[24] Rolland, Haute Provence 41-42 no. 32.

[25] Trier 13-15 no. 28 pl. 12-15.

[26] Boucher & Tasinari, Lyon 59 no.47.

 

[27] Boucher & Oggiano Bitar, Bavai 46-47 no. 12.

[28] Faider-Feytmans, Belgique 66 no.46 pl. 26.

[29] Lebel, Lons-le-Saunier 12 no.2 pl. II.

[30] Schnitzler, Alsace 30-31 no. 2.

[31] Ph.Filzinger & D.Plank & B.Cämmer, Die Römer in Baden-Württenberg pl.59; Nuber, Baden-Wűrttenberg 48 Fig.27. A similar piece can be found in Verona. See: Franzoni, Verona 56 no.36.

[32] Hill, Baltimore 17-18 no. 28 pl.8 thinks that we deal with a Roman type.

[33] Veličković, Belgrad  129 sq no. 26 ascribes the statuette to a workshop in Macedonia.

[34] For instance a statuette of Venus with silver torques by the neck from Novae. See A.Dimitreva-Milceva in: Studien zu den Militärgrenzen Roms. III. 13 Internationaler Limesskongress Alen 1983 (1986) 473 no. 5 Fig. 5 a, b, a Mercury with golden torques by the neck from Avallon. See Cat.Avallon1981, 35-36 no. 76.

[35] Kaufman-Heinimann, Augst, 36 no. 3 pl. 21-22 remarks that the Kerbschnitts incisions are characterisitc of the local form and style.

[36] Nuber, Baden-Württemberg 97 sq Fig. 27 mentions similar pieces from Straubing, Enns and Augsburg. See also Fleischer, Zum römischen Schatzfund von Straubing, ÖJh 46, 1961/63, Beiblatt 171 ff; idem, Ein Bronzewerkstatt in Raetien, în Colocviu Lyon 61-68 Fig.1-3.

[37] Rolland, Haute Provence 50 no. 53.

[38] C. Di Stefano, Palermo nos. 27, 28, 30, pl. VIII.

[39] See: Espérandieu & Rolland, Seine Maritime, 31 nos. 27 and 28 pl.XI.

[40] Colocviu Freiburg, 315-318. See also a Mercury Pantheus from Anost, Saône-et-Loire la Lebel & Boucher, Autun no. 82.

[41] The sharp chin reminds that of young Marcus Aurelius. See a portrait from Tarragona, dated to 145 AD in the catalogue of the exhibition Hispania romana Da terra di conquista a provincia dell’impero, Rome.22 Sep.- 23 Nov. 1997 (1997) 403 no. 203 (E.Koppel).

[42] A Mercury with the features of Gallienus occurs in an urn tomb from the 3rd century from Ivanka pri Dunaji (Slovakia). See: J. Bouzek în: Colocviu Berlin 59 sq Fig.2. In the Swiss antiquities trade occurred a statuette depicting Commodus (H. 7.6 cm), dating before 192. In fact, we deal with s syncretic deity with the features of Commodus. See: Paul Francisc Jacquier in: Münzen und Kunst der Antike, Katalog 20 Herbst 1997, 81.

[43] Augst 29: 1. nude, bag in the right, wings in the hair; 2. mantle on the left shoulder, wings in the hair; 3. mantle covering the left part of the body, Polyclitus type hairdo; 4. mantle covering the body caught up over the right shoulder; 5. mantle caught up over the right shoulder running obliquely on the back, folding around the left arm, Polyclitus type hairdo. A variant of this type depicts Mercury with a lotus flower on the crown of the head - Hermes Toth type.

[44] LIMC VI 1, 507-508 divides the statuettes into 4 groups: 1 Mercury sitting; 2. Rare depictions of Mercury sitting or walking; 3. Mercury sititng; 4. Mercury lying. Group 1 includes 5 types: a. nude Mercury his weight on the right, rarely on the left; b. drapery on the shoulder; c. mantle on the left, caught up over the shoulder with a fibula; d. travel mantle covering the body; e. mantle around the shoulders. However, it does not make up a special category of Mercury-Toth depictions.

[45] LIMC VI 1 538-542 s.v. Mercury in den Nordwestprowinzen (G.Bauchhenss).

[46] Colocviu Freiburg 129 sqq and 273.

[47] M. Bărbulescu, Cultele mentions a bronze leg that might come fom a statuette of Mercury sitting. The piece comes from Potaissa and is kept in the Museum of History in Turda. Inv. 8535.

[48] Ch. Picard, Manuel, II,1, 264 sq; Furtwängler, Meisterwerke 427 Fig.63; Boucher, Vienne 56 note 2.

[49] Walters, Cat.Brit Mus pl. XXIV no. 825.

[50] Symposium 228.

[51] Polyklet 404 sqq.

[52] For this type of Mercury linked to the Andros-Farnese type, see the discussion at Leibundgut, Avenches II, 24 and Gschwantler, in: Lebendige Altertumswissenschaft. Festschrift H.Vetters (1985) 239 sqq pl. 29. Di Stefano, Palermo 18 considers that the iconographic type inspired by an original from the early Hellenistic age that should be searched, maybe, in the Alexandria context. A review of the various opinions see Faider-Feytmans, Belgique 67.

[53] Apulum XV 1977, 272 sqq.

[54] LIMC, V, 1, 278.

[55] Kleine Schriften II 373.

[56] Kaufmann-Heinimann, Götter 210 GFV2 fig.146; 216 GFV15 Fig.159; 222 sq BFV 41 Fig.170.

[57] C.Matusch, Symposium 140 Fig. 18.

[58] Verona 51 sq

[59] Antike Plastik XII 1973, 133-147 pl. 45-48.

[60] Colocviu Viena 290-301. See also V.P.Vassiliev in Modus in rebus. Gedenkschrift für Wolfgang Schindler (1995) 132-134 pl.38-39.

[61] Avenches 23 sq.

[62] Verona 51 sq.

[63] S.Boucher, Gaule 103-106. See also G. Bauchhenss, Mitt.Arch.Ges.Steinmark 3-4, 1991, 83-93., and A.Leibundgut, JdI 99, 1984, 257-289.

[64] Liebighaus, 146.

[65] See also W. Fuchs, Der Schiffsfund von Mahdia (1963) 20, pl. 20; G. Hellenkemper Salies (Hrsg.) u. a. Das Wrack. Der antike Schiffsfund von Mahdia. Kataloge des Rheinisches landesmuseums Bonn 1, 1-2 (Köln 1994).

[66] Kaufmann-Heinimann, Augst 29; H.Oggiano-Bitar in: Colocviu Freiburg 311-318.