The Danube Delta biosphere reservation

Photo Album

I. PRECISE LOCATION
II. JUSTIFYING LISTING
III. DESCRIPTION

I. PRECISE LOCATION

a. COUNTRY (AND THE STATE, IF DIFFERENT)
          Romania (Dobrogea)
b. STATE, PROVINCE OR REGION
          County: Tulcea
c. NAME OF PROPERTY
          Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation.
d. PRECISE LOCATION ON THE MAP AND INDICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES
          
          In the Tulcea county, delimited by the seaside and the Kilia, Sulina and St. George branches.
          - 45° north latitude
          - 29° east longitude.
d. ZONE DELIMITATION
          
          The area nominated for world heritage listing is a natural paradise stretching where the Danube empties into the Black Sea, as the river ends its long journey of 2,860 km (1,788 miles) from its spring in the Black Forest Mountains of Germany. For centuries on end, the surface of the Delta has been extending due to the loam brought by the river, thus making up a network of channels, lakes, islands covered by reedbeds, tropical forests, pastures, and dunes that now stretch over a surface of almost 5,640 km2 (2,200 square miles). The Danube, rising in Germany, joined by tributaries from ten countries and crossing four capitals, after a 2,860 km flow, forms a Delta in the spot where it empties into the Black Sea.
          The Danube Delta lies in the SE of Romania, in the shape of the Greek letter "A" (delta). To the SW it is bordered by the Dobrudjan plateau, to the north it extends across the Ukrainian border, and to its East there is the Black Sea. The Danube Delta is crossed by the 45° north latitude parallel and 29° longitude meridian. Its surface, together with the Razim-Sinoe lagoon complex, is 5,050 km2 wide, 732 km2 of which belong to the Ukraine. The Delta itself has a surface of 2,540 km2, growing 40 m each year, due to the 67 million tons of alluvial deposits from the river. The Danube Delta is undoubtedly one of the most interesting and original corners in the country. Many consider it to be a unique spot in Europe, both due to its geographical position and its extension. The area belongs to the Tulcea county, delimited by the seaside and the Kilia, Sulina and St. George branches.
           According to the Decision of the Romanian Government regarding the delimitation of the biosphere reservations, etc, published in the Official Gazette of Romania from March 2003, the current limit of the Danube Delta is the following:
Northern limit. The northern limit runs from Cotul Pisicii to the border with the Republic of Moldova along the left bank of the Danube at the highest flooding level, from where it runs further along the border with the Republic of Moldova and then with the Ukraine.
East limit. It runs from where the Kilia branch empties into the Black Sea along the border with the Ukraine, as it comprises the inner sea waters and the territorial sea, including the 20 m fathom line, up to Cape Midia, the southernmost spot of the reservation.
West (continental) limit. It runs upstream the locality of Grindu from the boundary mark B1 situated on the outer slope of the contour dam of the Grindu-Isaccea embanked precinct corresponding to the right bank of the Danube River from Cotul Pisicii upstream the town of Isaccea to the boundary mark B13 to the boundary mark B13, crossing the cadastral marks B2-B13. Downstream the locality of Isaccea, from the boundary mark B15 to Tulcea, the continental limit of the reservation has been established at the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, and is made up of the contact line of the latter with the areas likely to be flooded at the highest levels, crossing the cadastral marks B16-B24.
           In the area of the city of Tulcea, from the boundary mark B25 situated upstream the mining port to downstream the platform of the food industry units, to the boundary mark B27, the continental limit of the reservation is the right bank of the Danube River, crossing the cadastral mark B26. From downstream the food industry platform of the city of Tulcea, from the boundary mark B27, the reservation limit makes a detour, running along the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau (including the Tulcea - Nufăru precinct), crossing the boundary mark B28 to the boundary mark B29 situated upstream the locality of Nufăru, where the reservation limit is the St. George branch bank to downstream the locality of Nufăru, to the boundary mark B30.
           Further on, the reservation limit is the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, including the Nufăru - Victoria precinct, crossing the boundary mark B31 in the close vicinity of the locality of Victoria, while in the area of the locality of Băltenii de Sus the limit is the right bank of the St. George branch, making a detour around the locality through the boundary mark B32. The limit further crosses the boundary mark B33 from the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, including the Beştepe - Mahmudia precinct to the boundary mark 34 situated upstream the locality of Mahmudia, from where the limit is the right bank of the St. George branch.
           From downstream the locality of Mahmudia the reservation limit is the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, crossing the boundary mark 35, including the Mahmudia - Murighiol farm with the access road to the Ghiolul Pietrei zootechnical farms, where there is the boundary mark 36. From that locality the reservation limit is a north-south road crossing the location named "Movila Duna", to the Tulcea - Murighiol county road, including lake Saratura, then reaching the north - west limit of the locality of Murighiol to the boundary mark B37, then the reservation limit is the north limit of the village of Murighiol to the boundary mark B38, further on to the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau to the locality of Dunavatzu de Sus, running by it, and crossing the boundary mark 39.
           The reservation limit further runs along the limit between the wet area and the horst heading southwards, making a detour around the locality of Dunavăţu de Jos through the boundary marks B40 and B41. From there the limit runs eastwards, being represented by the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, crossing the boundary marks B42, B43, B44, up to its crossing with Fundea Channel (B45). From the crossing point of its limit with Fundea Channel the limit is the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, as the Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation includes the Iazurile fish breeding farm, crossing the boundary marks B50-B59 to the north of the locality of Sarichioi.
           From that location the reservation limit is the west bank of the lake Razim crossing the boundary marks B64-B67 up to the location named "La Monument" (B68), then north-westwards it runs along the east limit of the lake Babadag and the west of the locality of Zebil to the crossing with the Tulcea-Zebil county road that is crosses, including the Tauc fish breeding farm, crossing the boundary marks B71-B74 and the Topraichioi fish breeding farm, crossing the boundary marks B76-B78, then running along the west limit of the lake Babadag at the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau, up to the north of the locality of Enisala around which it makes a detour through the north part, crossing the north part, crossing the boundary marks B79-B93. From that location, the reservation limit is the Dobrudjan plateau crossing with the west bank of the lake Razim up to Cape Doloshman, including the 6 Martie fish breeding farm, crossing the boundary marks B91-B93 and the Cape Doloshman whole protection area.
           From Cape Doloshman the reservation limit runs south-westwards, to the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau including the Lunca fish breeding farm crossing the boundary marks B94-B97. From the south of the locality of Lunca (B98), the west, south and south-east reservation limit is the plateau bank of the lakes Ceamurlia, Golovitsa and Zmeica, crossing the boundary marks B100-B106, including the depression areas with swamp vegetation, up to the location named "La Stanca" (B107) from where the reservation limit crosses the base of the top of a bank ridge called Lupilor, running westwards, then southwards to the lake Sinoe to the location named "Movilele Dese" (B111).
           From that location, the reservation limit runs westwards and southwards along the bank of the lake Istria-Istria Cetate in the linking area of the lake Istria with Nuntashi and Lake Tuzla, up to the forest in the north of the locality of Vadu around which it makes a detour to the north-east crossing the boundary marks B112-B121. Further on, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation makes a detour around the locality of Vadu to the east, then heads southwards at the foot of the Dobrudjan plateau with the wet areas, including Balta Mare and Balta de Mijloc, to Cape Midia, the southernmost location of the reservation, where there is the boundary mark B124.
II. JUSTIFYING LISTING

a. STATEMENT ON THE VALUE
b. POSSIBLE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
c. AUTHENTICITY, INTEGRITY
e. LISTING CRITERIA
b - c - d - Location - Description
a. STATEMENT ON THE VALUE

           This astonishing realm of waters is home for three hundred bird species and numerous fish species - over 45 -, from sturgeons to carps and perches, while the 1150 plant species range from lianas creeping on tree trunks in oak forests to water lilies. It is no wonder that UNESCO designated the Danube Delta as a "Biosphere Reservation". The Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation holds a triple international protection status: Biosphere Reservation, internationally nominated by the UNESCO Committee "Man and the Biosphere", International Wet Area nominated by the Ramsar Convention Secretariat, and World Natural Heritage Site recognised by UNESCO. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation was awarded also the European Diploma by the Council of Europe (according to the Government Decision 230 in the Official Gazette of Romania from 26th of March 2003 on the delimitation of biosphere reservations, national parks and natural parks).

a - c - d - Location - Description
b. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH SIMILAR PROPERTY

           Considered to be second largest in Europe (3,446 sq. km) the Danube Delta - biosphere reservation - is justly called "Paradise of Birds". Letea top of bank ridge, the bird colonies of Perishor - Zatoane, Uzlina-Crishana, Golovitza and Sacalin Islands are unique spots, each year attracting tourists from the remotest corners of the world. Few are aware that the Danube Delta is the youngest dry land of Europe, expanding by 40 km each year. It is the third largest Delta in Europe (next to the Volga and Kuban deltas) and the 22nd in the world. Its surface, together with the Razim-Sinoe lagoon complex is 5,050 km, 732 of which belong to the Ukraine. The Delta itself stretches over 2,540 km, expanding 40 m annually, due to the 67 million tons alluvia deposited by the river. The Danube Delta is undoubtedly one of the most interesting and original corners in the country. Many consider it to be a unique spot in Europe, both due to its geographical position and its extension.

a - b - d - Location - Description
c. AUTHENTICITY, INTEGRITY

           Modern works in the nominated area were few, which meets the authenticity criterion. In 1989, after 45 years of planned economy, the communist regime was overturned, hence a change also for the Danube Delta became possible. In 1980 they had begun reclaiming about 400 delta lakes for agriculture. This project was interrupted in 1994. The farming land was flooded again, and the major works upset the environmental balance. The current provisions allow only minimum changes in the area, without altering the authenticity aspect. At present, the environmental protection in this region with such an astounding flora and fauna has become a priority.

a - b - c - Location - Description
d. LISTING CRITERIA

           The Danube Delta was nominated for the World Heritage List because it meets the conditions 3, 4, item 24 in "Guidelines". It was listed by UNESCO with two requests:
          

  • Ukraine should be contacted as well, 724 km2 being on its territory.

  •           
  • the "Blue Danube" project should be developed for the protection of the area, comprising all the countries in the Danube basin area.

           With help from UNESCO, but also from the famous sea explorer Jacques Cousteau, in August 1991, the entire Delta was declared "Biosphere Reservation" by government decree. The efforts for the "Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation" were rewarded, in 1995, by the great prize "Eurosite", the symbol of UNESCO environmental recognition.

III. DESCRIPTION

a. HISTORY
b. THE DELTA AND ITS WORLD
c. COMPLETE SILENCE IN ONE SECOND
d. EXPLORING THE DELTA
e. NATURAL RESERVATIONS
f. THE MIRACLE OF WILDLIFE
g. A DELTA OF PELICANS, FISH, PLANTS AND TREES
h. THE FLOATING REED ISLET
i. ROUTES
b - c - d - e - f - g - h - i - Location - Identification
a. HISTORY

           "Rivers with fame that are navigable when coming from the sea include the Istrum" - wrote Herodotus from Halicarnasus in "Histories" (484 - 425 BC), the oldest description of the Lower Danube lands; Publius Ovidius Naso (about 10 - 15 AD) also remarked that "The Danube is the largest/It would not be lesser than the Nile". The second European river and the twentieth six in the world, almost 2,900 km long, over 800,000 km2, the size of the populated basin of about 80,000,000 inhabitants from eight countries - here is a short presentation of the generous waterway flowing from immemorial time, sailed by Phoenician boats, Greek triremes, Roman galleys, Byzantine, Genoan, Venetian, Cossack, Turkish ships, tugs, barges and motorships in recent times.
           "Istros" in the language of the Argonauts and the Egyptian mythology, "Phisos" with the Phoenicians, "Danare" - "Donaris" with the Thraco-Getians, "Istrum" - "Histr" - "Danubius" with the Romans, "Rio Divino" at the court of Charles V and "Le roi des fleuves de l'Europe" in Napoleon's opinion, Danube's last 1,075 km flow on Romanian territory ending in the Delta - the most representative on the old continent and one of the most complex in the world.
           As it enters this country through a monument of nature, the Cazane Gorge, the Danube leaves it through the huge, sumptuous, dream-like fan of the Delta. It is an original, unique spot: the youngest land of Europe, neighbouring one of the oldest mountains of the planet (Macin, a Hercynian massif, about 400,000,000 years) - land and water in an endless fight, each time different, web of channels, bank ridges, streams, tropical life forests, river and sea dunes in an encompassing ceaseless metamorphosis.
           It is no wonder that historical information differ: the same Herodotus thought that the Danube divides into five branches where it empties, an account maintained by Eratostenes from Alexandria and the Greek Polybius (272 - 120 BC), contradicted at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD by the geographer Strabon from Pontus who numbered seven branches, by the Roman Pliny the Elder, convinced there were six, by the Egyptian Claudius Ptolemy (about 90-168 AD) mentioning seven branches where the Danube empties into the Black Sea, including "Gura Sfanta" (the Saint Mouth).
           The maps from the Middle Ages are no better, the Danube empties into Marmara, or Dardanelles, and if it is accounted that it empties into the Black Sea, it has one, two branches, or five, six, one of which it is drawn in the port of Constantza. As late as 1856 the English captain Spratt drew a more realistic map; but still far from the truth, as today the lighthouses installed by the seaside in 1802 (Sulina) and 1865 (St. George) stand two-three kilometres behind the seaside! We shall understand, if we take into account the "delta" peak - the triangle similar to the Greek letter that inspired it - where the first bifurcation of the branches occurs, the average flow rate of the river is about 6,300 m3/second, which means that in two minutes flows a sufficient amount of water for one day consumption of a town with over 1,000,000 inhabitants; a water carrying about two tons of alluvia in suspension each second.
           A natural paradise stretches where the Danube empties into the Black Sea, where the river ends its 2,860 km (1,788 miles) long journey from its source in the Black Forest Mountains in Germany. For centuries on end, the surface of the Delta expanded due to the loam brought by the river, thus making up a network of channels, lakes, islands covered by reedbeds, tropical forests, pastures, and dunes that now stretch over a surface of almost 5,640 km2 (2,200 square miles). This astonishing realm of waters is home for three hundred bird species and numerous fish species - over 45 -, from sturgeons to carps and perches, while the 1150 plant species range from lianas creeping on tree trunks in oak forests to water lilies. It is no wonder that UNESCO designated the Danube Delta as a "Biosphere Reservation".

a - c - d - e - f - g - h - i - Location - Identification
b. THE DELTA AND ITS WORLD

           The Danube, rising in Germany, joined by tributaries from ten countries and crossing four capitals, after a 2,860 km flow, forms a delta in the spot where it empties into the Black Sea.
           The Danube flows slowly in one direction, so that here its stream is no longer felt. The river waters, that before the first difluence ("ceatal" in the local dialect, after a Turkish word) from west of Tulcea, have an annual flow rate of about 6,300 m3/s, divide into three main branches: over 60% Kilia, about 18% Sulina and about 20% St. George. Between its numerous branches - Kilia, Sulina and St. George - there are lots of islands and isles covered by reedbeds. The swamps and mysterious wild forests reveal the largest swamp land that the Danube, before emptying into the Black Sea, crosses by many channels. A low swampy land of almost 6,800 km2, this realm of waters, "the country beyond the mackerel sky", as Sadoveanu would call it, is a wonderland. The dazzling vegetal world of reeds forming forests 4-5 m high, or floating tops of bank ridges that gather and break up while carried by the waves or the wind, or the beautiful water lilies, water mint and the other lake species, all make up the organic loam.
           Nowadays in the Delta there are 18 strictly protected zones, because of the need for conserving the natural evolution process, the specific fauna and flora. It is worth mentioning: Roshca-Buhaiova (near Lake Roshca there is a large pelican colony in Europe), Letea - a tropical like forest, at the highest height - and Sacalin-Zătoane (near St. George), stretching over 21,000 hectares, representing one of the rarest places where the crimp pelican can be met.

a - b - d - e - f - g - h - i - Location - Identification
c. COMPLETE SILENCE IN A SECOND

           For thousands of years, a small community lived in a perfect harmony with the extraordinary ecosystem of the Delta, making a living by fishing, animal breeding and reed picking. The villages, where the only access paths are the channels pervading them, seem to be timeless. As a visitor, we can explore by boat this astounding natural retreat perfectly silent and calm. That experience could make one imagine to have entered the pages of a National Geographic documentary.

a - b - c - e - f - g - h - i - Location - Identification
d. EXPLORING THE DELTA

           The starting point for a Delta adventure is usually Tulcea, a town almost as old as Rome, near the place where the Danube divides into three main branches, that is where the meadow starts.
           In Tulcea you will find modern hotels and natural sciences museums of the Delta. The town lies at 71 km (45 miles) distance from Sulina, almost as old itself, lying at the other end of the Sulina branch. Between these two locations tourists can cruise, and admire from comfortable ship docks, the flora, fauna and villages of the Delta.

a - b - c - d - f - g - h - i - Location - Identification
e. NATURAL RESERVATIONS

           Eighteen protected reservations and "buffer" zones lie all over the Delta. You can reach them through narrow channels, passing by floating reed islets and by forests, in the places where pelicans and cormorants gathering to catch fish. If you wish to explore that wild land peacefully, rent a boat and sail on the small channels. To this end you will need an authorisation issued by the Biosphere reservation.

a - b - c - d - e - g - h - i - Location - Identification
f. THE MIRACLE OF WILDLIFE

           If you stop in a village on the water bank, you will discover fishermen cooking their own version of a Russian traditional soup in open air Those who have refined tastes may try the Danube herring, beluga croquets or fried sturgeon, together with the savoury local wines Muscat and Merlot in Tulcea or Sulina restaurants. This wild land of waters will reveal for you an astonishing reality. A trip to the Delta will remain an unforgettable memory from all points of view.

a - b - c - d - e - f - h - i - Location - Identification
g. A DELTA OF PELICANS, FISH, PLANTS AND TREES

           The Danube Delta is home to 98% of the European water fauna - over 3,400 species, many unique in the world. The Delta has 300 bird species, many declared monuments of nature and protected by law - the common pelican and crimp pelican, the cormorant, the large and small egret, the white egret, the spoon bill, the swan, the Gruidae, the wild goose, the winter duck. Large pelican colonies can be encountered south of the St. George branch: Uzlina, Maliuc, those on the lakes Fortuna and Matita.
          About 160 fish species (the sturgeon, the grey mullet, the herring, the pike, the salmon, the pike perch, the barbell, the perch, the crucian) are the delight of fishermen. Fishing in the Delta was mentioned by the father of history, Herodotus. Fishing can be practised all through the year, except for 60 days starting with April, when the fish spawn. The Delta mammals include the otter, the vison - all of the precious fur family -, the fox, the wild cat, the wolf, the bear, the wild boar, the polecat, the hare. The sands hide turtles, the adder, and snake colonies.
          The 1,150 plant species are the great asset of the Delta flora. Here are several plant types: with floating leaves (the white water lily, the yellow water lily, the pond weed, the small water lily, the water thistle, the aldrovanda, a rare carnivorous plant), riverside or on floating islands (the reed, the club rush, the water fern, the sorrel, the water mint, the water cumin) and land ones (the white willow, the poplar, the alder, the wild cherry, the ash tree).
          In the Delta there are three forests declared monuments of nature: Letea (to the NE, the most impressive, as the traveller has the impression of being in the tropical jungle), Caraorman and Erenciuc, all of oak-trees, willows and black poplars. The exotic aspect comes from the many lianas and crawling plants. It is an exotic land with over 1,200 tree and plant species, with the richest bird fauna on the continent (over 300 species, including unique pelican colonies) and fish one represented by about 100 species, including the Danube herring and the sturgeons, source of the caviar, the Danube Delta is the largest wet reservation of Europe. It stretches over 2,681 km2.
          In 1991 UNESCO included the Danube Delta, the newest form of relief in Romania, a stranger to the "industrialisation process", among the biosphere reservations. In the Danube Delta prevails the swamp reed vegetation that covers about 78% of the whole surface. The main species are the reed, the club rush, the sedge, together with the small willow and many other species. The salt vegetation covers 6% of the whole surface, as it grows on salt soils and in the sea.
          The specificity comes from the species: Salicornia patula, Juncus marimus, Juncus littoralis, Plantago cornuti. Willow, ash tree, alder, poplar forests growing on river bank ridges are periodically flooded and develop on 6% of the whole surface. They are specific of the river delta, where they mark the landscape. Here are four types of such forests: those growing on low river bank ridges, flooded all year long, made up mostly of Salix alba and Salix fragilis; on higher river bank ridges there are forests of Salix alba, Populus alba, and Populus canescens; on the highest river bank ridges there are few such flooded poplar forests (Populus canescens and Populus alba), and cultivated species: the hybrid black poplar, the American maple tree and the Pennsylvania ash tree; a rarer type of such a forest is the alder tree (Alnus glutinosa prevails) growing on river bank ridges in the sea delta. The sandy steppe lawn vegetation covers 3% of the whole delta, developing above all in the sea fields Letea, Caraoman, and Sărăturile. Specific are the species Festuca bekeri, Secale sylvestris, Carex Colchica, Ephedra distachya. The vegetation of bank ridge mesophile lawns cover about 3% of the whole surface of the delta, especially on the river bank ridges periodically flooded. Glyceria maxima and Elytrigia repens prevail.

          The water vegetation of lakes, ponds and backwaters covers 2% of the whole delta. The underground vegetation includes the species Ceratophyllum submersum, Myriopyllum verticillatum, Potamogeton sp., Helodea canadensis. The floating vegetation is more varied. Lemna minor, Salvinia natans, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Nymphoides peltata, Nymphaea alba, Nuphar luteum, Trapa natans prevail. The above ground vegetation includes mostly reed (Phragmites australis), club rush (Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolio), Dutch rush (Schoenolectus lacustris). The bushes grown on sea field sands or on those on the active seasides stretch on just 1% of the whole surface of the delta and Tamarix ramosissima, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Hippophae rhamnoides prevail. The sea field forests of Letea and Caraorman are forest steppe traces, locally called "hasmac", with brownish oaks, (Quercus pedunculiflora), pedunculate oaks (Q. robur), ash trees (Fraxinus angustifolia), trembling poplars (Populus tremula), elms (Ulmus foliacea), and with the crawling plants Periploca graeca, Vitis silvestris, Hedra helix - are just 0.8% of the whole surface of the Danube Delta.

a - b - c - d - e - f - g - i - Location - Identification
h. THE FLOATING REED ISLET

           The formation specific of the massive reed colonies, the Floating Reed Islet is a layer about 1.6 m thick made up of an interweaving of reed rhizomes and roots of other water plants mixed with organic remains and soil. At first fastened, the Floating Reed Islet sticks out of the lake and pond bottoms, turning into floating islands of various sizes that, pushed by the wind, float on water. The Floating Reed Islet vegetation differs from the rest of the reed colonies. The reed (Phragmites australis) grows here in good conditions, as it is higher and thicker. Besides reed, there are sedge, mint, water fern (Nephrodium thelypteris), water hemlock, knot grass, small willow, as well as the crawling plants Calystegia sepium and Solanum dulcamara. On the Floating Reed Islet there are common and crimp pelican colonies, as well as wild boars, dogs, bisons, otters, minks, foxes.

a - b - c - d - e - f - g - h - Location - Identification
i. ROUTES

           Route 1: Tulcea harbour - Ceatalul Ismail - Partizani (Sulina branch) - Maliuc - Mila 14 - Crişan channel (1) - Caraoman - Caraoman channel - (a) Lake Puiu - Red Lake - (b) - Olguţa channel - Fortuna 1 channel (entrance) - Lake Fortuna - (c) Lake Băclăneşti - Şontea stream - (d) Lake Nebunu - Lake Meşter - Long Lake - Mila 35 channel - Tulcea branch - Tulcea harbour.
           Route 2: Tulces - Mila 35 channel - Şireasa, Şontea streams - Olguţa channel - Dunărea Veche - Mila 23 village - Crişan - Maliuc - Tulcea.
           Route 3: Tulcea - Victoria - Litcov, Crişan channels - Caraoman - Crişan - Maliuc - Tulcea.
           Route 4: Tulcea - Maliuc - Crişan - Crişan channel - Caraoman - Caraoman channel - lakes Puiu, Roşu, Roşulet, - Roşu channel - Bursuca channel - Sulina - Tulcea.
           Route 5: Murighiol - Dunavăţ, Dranov channels - Holbina bay - lake Razim - Gura Portiţei.