Let, Borosneul Mare, Covasna County

Starcevo - Cris settlement, Boian, Giulesti phase, Eneolithic (Cucuteni B, C culture), the Bronze Age (Monteoru culture), Hallstatt, Roman, mediaeval.

History of researches
. Excavations, 1949, M. Macrea and Z. Szekely; 1955, I. Nestor and E. Zaharia, Z. Szekely; Z. Szekely; 1996 - 7, Gh. Lazarovici, M. Mester. Excavations were carried out in the location “Cetate - Var”, but also in different places of the large inhabited surface.

Site description. The site is situated on a 30 m high mound, about 800 m long, 150 m wide, affected in the south-east part by a stone and sand quarry. The east, north and south areas are steep, while the west one is a gentle slope.

The research design indicated a check of the stratigraphy in different locations of the site, as well as the opening of a surface for specifying the nature of the complexes and obtaining pieces under clear stratigraphical conditions, and realizing a database for Neo-Eneolithic items. A casette outside the mediaeval fortress proved a very different stratigraphy.

Most culture layers are mixed because of the complex density, and because the upper layers reveal late Neolithic pits, (Boian - Giulesti start at about - 50 cm), or Eneolithic ones (the Ariusd - Cucuteni culture ones start from the depth of - 30 cm, at - 50 cm), that cross the lower layers of Starcevo - Cris.

The survey started from the size of 2 x 6 m, and was extended to 2 x 10 cm. Squares of 2 x 2 m were excavated, and wherever it was necessary, 1 x 1 squares in s. 4. In spite of that, the items, except the depths in which the complexes started to be delimited, in all the other cases the cultures and phases were intermingled archaeologically.

The Starcevo - Cris culture finds come from the remains of a two level culture layer, not always clearly separated. From different horizons of it start pits crossing the culture layer (G3 - G5), without belonging to a single horizon. One of the pits (G1) must have had a religious role, as in it were deposited several pottery fragments from a few vessels, some of them painted white, and a cult altar foot. The sizes of the pits are about 40 x 60 x 45 cm in depth.

Pit 1 is a pit of approximate sizes (the margins were caught only at its base): the diameter of about 40 cm, the depth of about 30 cm. In the pit were deposited a foot of a small communion table, fragments from a few vessels, a vessel fragment painted white. The fragments were deposited one upon the other directly, without soil between them. The earth in the pit mixture was earth, the uncovered layer, less yellow earth of the clay in which it sunk, which raises questions regarding the filling intention. As the pit mouth was not found, the yellow earth could have reached its upper part. The vessels belong to the SC III B - IV A stage, and they do not date from the earliest stages of Let. The presence of broken pieces and the deposition of fragments of them make us consider the pit to have a religious role.

References

The items are preserved at the Museum of the Eastern Carpathians.
202. Amphorette, of fine paste, polished, brick reddish. The Starcevo - Cris III B - IV A culture, H = 13 cm, D = 8.8 cm, d = 6 cm, Dm = 14 cm, Inv. A 1459
203. Fragment of the foot of a small communion table, of clay, mixed with dust, polished, with semispherical cup, decorated with wide incisions, in meanders. The Starcevo - Cris III B - IV A culture, H = 9 cm, w = 7 cm, Inv. A 1816.
204. Fragment of the foot of a small communion table, with semispherical cup, decorated with wide incisions and an eye, with triangular impressions, making up spared arches, polished, of clay, mixed with dust and crushed glass. The Starcevo - Cris III B - IV A culture, H = 9 cm, Inv. A 1457.
205. Fragment of pot, evened, matte or polished, brick reddish, bearing traces of white lines on the shoulder and belly, with tubular handle. The Starcevo - Cris III B - IV A culture, L = 14 cm, w = 10 cm, Inv. 1063.
206. Fragment of pot, evened, matte or polished, brick reddish, bearing traces of white lines on the shoulder and belly, with tubular handle. The Starcevo - Cris III B - IV A culture, L = 13 cm, w = 10 cm, Inv. 1455.
207. Pottery fragment, matte, brown, with straight motifs, painting, and dark brown lines. The Starcevo - Cris IV A culture, Inv. 1507.
208. Pottery fragment, brown, bearing unorganized barbotine. The Starcevo - Cris IV A culture, Inv. 1419.
209. Pottery fragment, brown, bearing barbotine organized in vertical rows. The Starcevo - Cris IV A culture, Inv. A 1392.
210. Pottery fragments, of clay, mixed with dust, brown, decorated with nail pinches and impressions. The Starcevo - Cris IV A culture,, Inv. A 1416, 1421.
211. Idem.
212. Pottery fragment, of brown colour, decorated with deep vertical incisions. The Starcevo - Cris IV A culture, Inv. A 1427.
213. Pottery fragment, of black greyish colour, decorated with a row of three knobs. The Starcevo - Cris IV A culture, Inv. 1550.
214. Pottery fragments, from lid, vessels, bowls, goblets, of brick, black - greyish paste, well fired, polished, some bearing slip, decorated with meandrous motifs, incised bands, excised triangles, curved parallel lines, incisions, channellings. The Boian culture, early and late Giulesti phase, Inv. A 1038 - 9, 1107, 1137, 1750, 1754, 1769 - 72, 1776, 1779, 1781 - 3, 1790 - 1, 1793 - 4.
215. Idem.
216. Idem.
217. Idem.
218. Idem.
219. Idem.
220. Idem.
221. Idem.
222. Idem.
223. Idem.
224. Idem.
225. Idem.
226. Idem.
227. Idem.
228. Semispherical bowl, wide rim, lacking decoration, of rough paste. The Cucuteni A4 culture, H = 5.5 cm, D = 10 cm, d = 3 cm, Inv. A 1001. 229. Grubbing hoe, of antler, 1st branch was cut out, and in its place it was perforated as a square (2 x 2 cm), the grubbing hoe edge is on the axis of the antler. The Ariusd, A3 - A4 culture, L = 35 cm, w = 7 cm, th = 5 cm, Inv. A 1000.
230 Pottery fragments, of amphora shoulder, cup rims and feet, of brick red or yellowish semifine paste, uneven, painted yellowish brown or dark brown on brick red, matte on the bottom of the vessel, lacking vernis. The Ariusd - Cucuteni culture, phase B, Inv. A 1066, 1104, 1136, 1138, 1184, 1191.
231. Idem.
232. Idem.
233. Idem.
234. Idem.
235. Idem.
236. Pottery fragments, of amphora shoulder, bowl rims, goblets, of brown, yellowish brown, black fine paste, polished, of fine clay, painted with curvilinearor spiral thin strips, white/beige on the vessel bottom or on the vernis, wide bands in arches, horizontal channellings on neck and shoulder. The Cucuteni A2 culture, Inv A 1067, 1085, 1101, 1106, 1154, 1194, 1227, 1259, 1320 a, b.
237. Idem.
238. Idem.
239. Idem.
240. Idem.
241. Idem.
242. Idem.
243. Idem.
244. Idem.
245. Idem.
246. Idem.
247. Pottery fragments, of amphora walls and rims, of brown or brick red semifine paste, polished or matte, painted with meandrous red wide strips, bordered by thin brown lines. The Ariusd - Cucuteni, A3 - A4, Inv. 1094, 1304, 1340.
248. Idem.
249. Idem.
250. Idem.
251. Pottery fragments, of amphora wall, plate, bowl, of brick red semifine paste, polished, painted with thin close strips making up meanders or arches. The Ariusd - Cucuteni A3 - A4, Inv. A 1331, 1332, 1372.
252. Idem.
253. Idem.
254. Pottery fragments, of small amphora wall or straight rim bowls, of brick red fine paste, bearing white vernis, painted brown, the “horror vacui” pattern, making up thin matte strips, bearing meandrous curvilinear motifs. The Ariusd - Cucuteni AB, Inv. A 1176 - 7, 1344, 1351, 1358.
255. Idem.
256. Idem.
257. Idem.
258. Idem.
259. Pottery fragments, of amphora rim and wall, of brick red semifine paste, polished, painted with white wide strips, making up meanders or curve spaces. The Ariusd - Cucuteni culture, A3 - A4, Inv. 1084, 1178.
260. Idem.
261. Pottery fragments, of amphora wall, of common paste, brick red, matte, bearing white vernis, painted with thin strips of 3 - 4 lines. The Ariusd - Cucuteni AB culture, Inv. 1121, 1355.
262. Idem.
263. Goblet fragment, of fine paste, brick red, polished, bearing a perforated knob as handle, with two colour painting, white wide bands, bordered by a brown thin band. The Ariusd - Cucuteni AB culture, H = 7 cm, D = 14 cm, Inv. A 1258. 264. Spoon handle, of fine paste, polished, brick red, perforated knob as handle, two-colour painting, with white wide bands, bordered by brown thin bands. The Ariusd - Cucuteni AB culture, L = 4 cm, w = 4.5 cm, th = 0.5 cm, Inv. A 1258.


Gheorghe Lazarovici